What Is Cat I Meant In Shell Script

Shell Programming

In my experience with shell scripting, I’ve encountered the “cat” command numerous times. In simple terms, “cat” is short for “concatenate” and it’s used to display the contents of files, to combine copies of files, and to create new ones. It’s a versatile and powerful tool, often considered a staple in the toolkit of any shell script developer.

Usage of Cat Command

When writing shell scripts, I’ve found “cat” to be incredibly useful for viewing the contents of files without having to open them in a text editor. For example, running cat file.txt in the terminal will display the entire contents of “file.txt” directly in the terminal window.

Furthermore, “cat” can be used to combine the contents of multiple files. For instance, executing cat file1.txt file2.txt > combined.txt will concatenate “file1.txt” and “file2.txt” and save the output to a new file named “combined.txt”. This can be handy when working with large datasets or when merging files in a specific order.

Appending to a File

One of the features of “cat” that I find especially useful is its ability to append content to a file. By using the double greater than sign (>>) followed by the name of a file, cat can append the output to the end of an existing file. For example, cat new_data.txt >> existing_file.txt will add the contents of “new_data.txt” to the end of “existing_file.txt”.

Displaying Line Numbers

When dealing with large files, keeping track of line numbers can be important. “Cat” can be combined with the “-n” option to display line numbers alongside the file content. For instance, running cat -n file.txt will display the contents of “file.txt” with line numbers prepended to each line.

Concatenating Standard Input

In some cases, I’ve found “cat” to be valuable for working with standard input. By using the command without any file arguments, it will simply read from the standard input and, when executed, will write to the standard output. This can be incredibly handy for piping the output of one command as input into another.


Overall, the “cat” command is a fundamental and remarkably versatile tool in shell scripting. From simply displaying file contents to concatenating and creating new files, its utility is evident across a wide range of use cases. Mastering the “cat” command has certainly been a valuable addition to my shell scripting repertoire.