How To Change Caterogrical Variable R

R Programming

Changing categorical variables in R can be a useful skill for data analysis and machine learning projects. Whether you’re working with factors, strings, or other types of categorical data, R provides several methods and packages to help you handle and transform these variables. In this article, I’ll walk you through different techniques for changing and manipulating categorical variables in R, sharing my personal insights and commentary along the way.

Understanding Categorical Variables

Categorical variables are used to represent data that falls into specific categories or groups. In R, these variables are often represented as factors, where each level represents a different category. It’s important to understand the nature of your categorical data before attempting to change or modify it. This understanding will guide your approach to handling the data effectively.

Using the ‘dplyr’ Package

One of my favorite ways to transform categorical variables in R is by using the ‘dplyr’ package. This package offers a simple and intuitive syntax for data manipulation. When working with factors, you can use the mutate() function along with factor() to change the levels of a categorical variable. For instance, you can use mutate() to recode specific levels into new categories, providing a clean and readable way to modify your data.

Converting Strings to Factors

When dealing with categorical data stored as strings, converting them to factors can be beneficial for analysis and modeling. In R, you can use the as.factor() function to achieve this. By converting strings to factors, you can take advantage of R’s factor levels and ordering to ensure proper handling of the categorical data.

Using ‘forcats’ for Factor Manipulation

For more advanced manipulation of factor levels in R, the ‘forcats’ package comes in handy. This package provides functions for working with factors, such as reordering levels, adding new levels, and managing factor labels. Personally, I find the functionality of ‘forcats’ to be extremely useful when dealing with complex categorical variables that require careful restructuring.

Dealing with Missing Data

It’s important to address missing values when working with categorical variables. In R, missing values are often represented as NA within factors. You can use the forcats::fct_explicit_na() function to make missing values explicit within the factor levels, making it easier to handle and impute missing data in your categorical variables.


Changing categorical variables in R involves a mix of techniques and packages that cater to different types of categorical data. By understanding the nature of your data and leveraging the capabilities of packages like ‘dplyr’ and ‘forcats’, you can effectively manipulate and transform your categorical variables to suit your analytical needs. Whether it’s recoding factor levels, converting strings to factors, or managing missing data, R provides a robust set of tools for handling categorical variables.