Did R Package

R Programming

Today, let’s talk about the “did” R package. As an avid R programmer, I have found this package to be incredibly useful in my data analysis projects. Whether you’re working with large datasets or just need a quick way to summarize your data, the “did” package has got you covered.

Getting Started with the “did” Package

The “did” package is designed to help researchers and data analysts estimate causal effects using the Difference-in-Differences (DiD) method. This method is widely used in economics and social sciences to analyze the impact of a treatment or intervention on a specific outcome.

Using the “did” package, you can easily implement the DiD method in R and obtain unbiased estimates of causal effects. The package provides functions for fitting various DiD models, conducting hypothesis tests, and visualizing results.

Installation and Loading

To get started with the “did” package, you’ll first need to install it from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN). Open your R console and type the following command:


Once the installation is complete, you can load the package into your R session using the following command:


Estimating Causal Effects

Once you have loaded the “did” package, you can start estimating causal effects using the DiD method. The key function in the “did” package is diD, which fits a DiD model to your data.

To use the diD function, you’ll need to have your data in a suitable format. The function expects a data frame with at least four columns: the outcome variable, the treatment indicator, the group indicator, and the time indicator. For example:

data <- data.frame(outcome, treatment, group, time)

Once your data is in the right format, you can call the diD function and pass in your data frame as an argument. The function will estimate the causal effect and return a summary of the results.

Hypothesis Testing

The "did" package also provides functions for conducting hypothesis tests on the estimated causal effect. For example, you can use the diDtest function to test whether the treatment effect is statistically significant.

To use the diDtest function, you'll need to pass in the model object returned by the diD function. The function will then perform the test and provide the test statistic, degrees of freedom, and p-value.

Visualizing Results

Visualizing the results of a DiD analysis is often helpful for understanding and communicating the findings. The "did" package provides functions for creating various types of plots, including time series plots and scatter plots.

For example, you can use the plot.dD function to create a time series plot of the outcome variable for the treatment and control groups before and after the intervention. This can help you visualize any changes in the outcome due to the treatment.


The "did" package is a powerful tool for estimating causal effects using the Difference-in-Differences method. It provides functions for fitting DiD models, conducting hypothesis tests, and visualizing results. Whether you're a researcher, data analyst, or student, the "did" package can help you analyze the impact of treatments and interventions in your data. Give it a try and see how it can enhance your data analysis workflow!